The effects of an enteral nutrition feeding protocol on critically ill patients: A prospective multi-center, before-after study

This trial by Jiang and others was published online in the Journal of Critical Care during January 2020.
Purpose:  The aim of this study was to explore the effects of an enteral nutrition (EN) feeding protocol in critically ill patients.
Methods:  This was a prospective multi-center before-after study. We compared energy related and prognostic indicators between the control group (pre-implementation stage) and intervention group (post-implementation stage). The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients receiving EN within 7 days after ICU admission.
Results:  209 patients in the control group and 230 patients in the intervention group were enrolled. The implementation of the EN protocol increased the percentage of target energy reached from day 3 to day 7, and the difference between two groups reached statistical significance in day 6 (P = .01) and day 7 (P = .002). But it had no effects on proportion of patient receiving EN (P = .65) and start time of EN (P = .90). The protocol application might be associated with better hospital survival (89.1% vs 82.8%, P = .055) and reduce the incidence of EN related adverse (P = .004). There was no difference in ICU length of stay, duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU cost.
Conclusion:  The implementation of the enteral feeding protocol is associated with improved energy intake and a decreased incidence of enteral nutrition related adverse events for critically ill patients, but it had no statistically beneficial effects on reducing the hospital mortality rate.
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Effect of Postextubation High-Flow Nasal Oxygen With Noninvasive Ventilation vs High-Flow Nasal Oxygen Alone on Reintubation Among Patients at High Risk of Extubation Failure: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

This article from the HIGH WEAN Study Group and REVA Research Network was published in JAMA during 2019.
Importance:  High-flow nasal oxygen may prevent postextubation respiratory failure in the intensive care unit (ICU). The combination of high-flow nasal oxygen with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) may be an optimal strategy of ventilation to avoid reintubation.
Objective:  To determine whether high-flow nasal oxygen with prophylactic NIV applied immediately after extubation could reduce the rate of reintubation, compared with high-flow nasal oxygen alone, in patients at high risk of extubation failure in the ICU.
Design, Setting, and Participants:  Multicenter randomized clinical trial conducted from April 2017 to January 2018 among 641 patients at high risk of extubation failure (ie, older than 65 years or with an underlying cardiac or respiratory disease) at 30 ICUs in France; follow-up was until April 2018.
Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to high-flow nasal oxygen alone (n = 306) or high-flow nasal oxygen with NIV (n = 342) immediately after extubation.
Main Outcomes and Measures:  The primary outcome was the proportion of patients reintubated at day 7; secondary outcomes included postextubation respiratory failure at day 7, reintubation rates up until ICU discharge, and ICU mortality.
Results:  Among 648 patients who were randomized (mean [SD] age, 70 [10] years; 219 women [34%]), 641 patients completed the trial. The reintubation rate at day 7 was 11.8% (95% CI, 8.4%-15.2%) (40/339) with high-flow nasal oxygen and NIV and 18.2% (95% CI, 13.9%-22.6%) (55/302) with high-flow nasal oxygen alone (difference, -6.4% [95% CI, -12.0% to -0.9%]; P = .02). Among the 11 prespecified secondary outcomes, 6 showed no significant difference. The proportion of patients with postextubation respiratory failure at day 7 (21% vs 29%; difference, -8.7% [95% CI, -15.2% to -1.8%]; P = .01) and reintubation rates up until ICU discharge (12% vs 20%, difference -7.4% [95% CI, -13.2% to -1.8%]; P = .009) were significantly lower with high-flow nasal oxygen and NIV than with high-flow nasal oxygen alone. ICU mortality rates were not significantly different: 6% with high-flow nasal oxygen and NIV and 9% with high-flow nasal oxygen alone (difference, -2.4% [95% CI, -6.7% to 1.7%]; P = .25).
Conclusions and Relevance:  In mechanically ventilated patients at high risk of extubation failure, the use of high-flow nasal oxygen with NIV immediately after extubation significantly decreased the risk of reintubation compared with high-flow nasal oxygen alone.
The print copy of this issue JAMA is available in the Healthcare Library on D Level of Rotherham General Hospital.

Effect of Vitamin C Infusion on Organ Failure and Biomarkers of Inflammation and Vascular Injury in Patients With Sepsis and Severe Acute Respiratory Failure: The CITRIS-ALI Randomized Clinical Trial.

This article by Fowler et al was published in JAMA during October 2019 in volume 322 issue 13.
Importance:  Experimental data suggest that intravenous vitamin C may attenuate inflammation and vascular injury associated with sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
Objective:  To determine the effect of intravenous vitamin C infusion on organ failure scores and biological markers of inflammation and vascular injury in patients with sepsis and ARDS.
Design, Setting, and Participants:  The CITRIS-ALI trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial conducted in 7 medical intensive care units in the United States, enrolling patients (N = 167) with sepsis and ARDS present for less than 24 hours. The study was conducted from September 2014 to November 2017, and final follow-up was January 2018.InterventionsPatients were randomly assigned to receive intravenous infusion of vitamin C (50 mg/kg in dextrose 5% in water, n = 84) or placebo (dextrose 5% in water only, n = 83) every 6 hours for 96 hours.
Main Outcomes and Measures:  The primary outcomes were change in organ failure as assessed by a modified Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (range, 0-20, with higher scores indicating more dysfunction) from baseline to 96 hours, and plasma biomarkers of inflammation (C-reactive protein levels) and vascular injury (thrombomodulin levels) measured at 0, 48, 96, and 168 hours.
Results:  Among 167 randomized patients (mean [SD] age, 54.8 years [16.7]; 90 men [54%]), 103 (62%) completed the study to day 60. There were no significant differences between the vitamin C and placebo groups in the primary end points of change in mean modified Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score from baseline to 96 hours (from 9.8 to 6.8 in the vitamin C group [3 points] and from 10.3 to 6.8 in the placebo group [3.5 points]; difference, -0.10; 95% CI, -1.23 to 1.03; P = .86) or in C-reactive protein levels (54.1 vs 46.1 μg/mL; difference, 7.94 μg/mL; 95% CI, -8.2 to 24.11; P = .33) and thrombomodulin levels (14.5 vs 13.8 ng/mL; difference, 0.69 ng/mL; 95% CI, -2.8 to 4.2; P = .70) at 168 hours.
Conclusions and Relevance:  In this preliminary study of patients with sepsis and ARDS, a 96-hour infusion of vitamin C compared with placebo did not significantly improve organ dysfunction scores or alter markers of inflammation and vascular injury. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential role of vitamin C for other outcomes in sepsis and ARDS.
The print copy of this issue JAMA is available in the Healthcare Library on D Level of Rotherham General Hospital.

Effect of an ICU Diary on Post traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Among Patients Receiving Mechanical Ventilation: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

This research by Garrouste-Orgeas and colleagues was published in JAMA during July 2019.
Importance:  Keeping a diary for patients while they are in the intensive care unit (ICU) might reduce their posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms.
Objectives:  To assess the effect of an ICU diary on the psychological consequences of an ICU hospitalization.
Design, Setting, and Participants:  Assessor-blinded, multicenter, randomized clinical trial in 35 French ICUs from October 2015 to January 2017, with follow-up until July 2017. Among 2631 approached patients, 709 adult patients (with 1 family member each) who received mechanical ventilation within 48 hours after ICU admission for at least 2 days were eligible, 657 were randomized, and 339 were assessed 3 months after ICU discharge.
Interventions:  Patients in the intervention group (n = 355) had an ICU diary filled in by clinicians and family members. Patients in the control group (n = 354) had usual ICU care without an ICU diary.
Main Outcomes and Measures:  The primary outcome was significant PTSD symptoms, defined as an Impact Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) score greater than 22 (range, 0-88; a higher score indicates more severe symptoms), measured in patients 3 months after ICU discharge. Secondary outcomes, also measured at 3 months and compared between groups, included significant PTSD symptoms in family members; significant anxiety and depression symptoms in patients and family members, based on a Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale score greater than 8 for each subscale (range, 0-42; higher scores indicate more severe symptoms; minimal clinically important difference, 2.5); and patient memories of the ICU stay, reported with the ICU memory tool.
Results:  Among 657 patients who were randomized (median [interquartile range] age, 62 [51-70] years; 126 women [37.2%]), 339 (51.6%) completed the trial. At 3 months, significant PTSD symptoms were reported by 49 of 164 patients (29.9%) in the intervention group vs 60 of 175 (34.3%) in the control group (risk difference, -4% [95% CI, -15% to 6%]; P = .39). The median (interquartile range) IES-R score was 12 (5-25) in the intervention group vs 13 (6-27) in the control group (difference, -1.47 [95% CI, -1.93 to 4.87]; P = .38). There were no significant differences in any of the 6 prespecified comparative secondary outcomes.
Conclusions and Relevance:  Among patients who received mechanical ventilation in the ICU, the use of an ICU diary filled in by clinicians and family members did not significantly reduce the number of patients who reported significant PTSD symptoms at 3 months. These findings do not support the use of ICU diaries for preventing PTSD symptoms.
The print copy of this issue JAMA is available in the Healthcare Library on D Level of Rotherham General Hospital.

Effect of Flexible Family Visitation on Delirium Among Patients in the Intensive Care Unit: The ICU Visits Randomized Clinical Trial.

This article by the ICU Visits Study Group Investigators and the Brazilian Research in Intensive Care Network (BRICNet) was published in JAMA in July 2019
Importance:  The effects of intensive care unit (ICU) visiting hours remain uncertain.
Objective:  To determine whether a flexible family visitation policy in the ICU reduces the incidence of delirium.
Design, Setting and Participants:  Cluster-crossover randomized clinical trial involving patients, family members, and clinicians from 36 adult ICUs with restricted visiting hours (<4.5 hours per day) in Brazil. Participants were recruited from April 2017 to June 2018, with follow-up until July 2018.InterventionsFlexible visitation (up to 12 hours per day) supported by family education (n = 837 patients, 652 family members, and 435 clinicians) or usual restricted visitation (median, 1.5 hours per day; n = 848 patients, 643 family members, and 391 clinicians). Nineteen ICUs started with flexible visitation, and 17 started with restricted visitation.
Main Outcomes and Measures:  Primary outcome was incidence of delirium during ICU stay, assessed using the CAM-ICU. Secondary outcomes included ICU-acquired infections for patients; symptoms of anxiety and depression assessed using the HADS (range, 0 [best] to 21 [worst]) for family members; and burnout for ICU staff (Maslach Burnout Inventory).
Results:  Among 1685 patients, 1295 family members, and 826 clinicians enrolled, 1685 patients (100%) (mean age, 58.5 years; 47.2% women), 1060 family members (81.8%) (mean age, 45.2 years; 70.3% women), and 737 clinicians (89.2%) (mean age, 35.5 years; 72.9% women) completed the trial. The mean daily duration of visits was significantly higher with flexible visitation (4.8 vs 1.4 hours; adjusted difference, 3.4 hours [95% CI, 2.8 to 3.9]; P < .001). The incidence of delirium during ICU stay was not significantly different between flexible and restricted visitation (18.9% vs 20.1%; adjusted difference, -1.7% [95% CI, -6.1% to 2.7%]; P = .44). Among 9 prespecified secondary outcomes, 6 did not differ significantly between flexible and restricted visitation, including ICU-acquired infections (3.7% vs 4.5%; adjusted difference, -0.8% [95% CI, -2.1% to 1.0%]; P = .38) and staff burnout (22.0% vs 24.8%; adjusted difference, -3.8% [95% CI, -4.8% to 12.5%]; P = .36). For family members, median anxiety (6.0 vs 7.0; adjusted difference, -1.6 [95% CI, -2.3 to -0.9]; P < .001) and depression scores (4.0 vs 5.0; adjusted difference, -1.2 [95% CI, -2.0 to -0.4]; P = .003) were significantly better with flexible visitation.
Conclusions and Relevance:  Among patients in the ICU, a flexible family visitation policy, vs standard restricted visiting hours, did not significantly reduce the incidence of delirium.
The print copy of this issue JAMA is available in the Healthcare Library on D Level of Rotherham General Hospital.

Analgesia-first sedation in critically ill adults: A U.S. pilot, randomized controlled trial

This research by Tanios and colleagues was first published online in June 2019 in the Journal of Critical Care.
Purpose:  To determine the feasibility of conducting a multicenter ICU RCT of AFS compared to either protocol-directed sedation (PDS) or both PDS and daily sedation interruption (DSI) in North America.
Materials and methods:  This single-center RCT compared AFS with either PDS or both PDS and DSI daily in adults mechanically ventilated (MV) ≥48 h. Relevant feasibility, safety, and clinical outcomes were defined and evaluated.
Results:  90 of 160 eligible patients were enrolled [AFS = 27; PDS = 28; PDS + DSI = 31]; rate = 3/month. Time from intubation to randomization was 17.5 ± 11.6 h. Study days fully adherent to the study intervention [AFS = 95%; PDS = 99%; PDS + DSI = 96%] and time spent in the first 48 h after randomization without pain (CPOT ≤2)[AFS = 82%; PDS = 78%; PDS + DSI = 77%] and at goal RASS[AFS = 88%; PDS = 83%; PDS + DSI = 95%] were high and similar. Nurse-perceived [median (IQR)] study workload (10-point VAS) was higher with AFS [4(2–6)] than PDS [1(1–3)] or PDS + DSI [2(1–5)]; p = .002). Unplanned extubation was rare (AFS = 1; PDS = 0; PDS + DSI = 1). Days [median (IQR)] free of MV in the 28d after intubation [AFS 24(23,26); PDS 24(20,26); PDS + DSI 24(21,26)] was not different (p = .62).
Conclusion:  A multicenter RCT evaluating AFS is feasible to conduct in North America.
The full text of this article is available to subscribers via this link to the journal’s homepage.  The full text of articles from issues older than sixty days is available via this link to an archive of issues of Journal of Critical Care.  A Rotherham NHS Athens password is required.  Eligible staff can register for an Athens password via this link.  Please speak to the library staff for more details.

Variability in triage practices for critically ill cancer patients: A randomized controlled trial

This article by Rathi and others was published online in May 2019 in the “Journal of Critical Care”.
Purpose:  Intensive care triage practices and end-user interpretation of triage guidelines have rarely been assessed. We evaluated agreement between providers on the prioritization of patients for ICU admission using different triage guidelines.
Materials and methods:  A multi-centered randomized study on providers from 18 different countries was conducted using clinical vignettes of oncological patients. The level of agreement between providers was measured using two different guidelines, with one being cancer specific.
Results:  Amongst 257 providers, 52.5% randomly received the Society of Critical Care Prioritization Model, and 47.5% received a cancer specific flowchart as a guide. In the Prioritization Model arm the average entropy was 1.193, versus 1.153 in the flowchart arm (P = .095) indicating similarly poor agreement. The Fleiss’ kappa coefficients were estimated to be 0.2136 for the SCCMPM arm and 0.2457 for the flowchart arm, also similarly implying poor agreement.
Conclusions:  The low agreement amongst practitioners on the prioritization of cancer patient cases for ICU admission existed using both general triage guidelines and guidelines tailored only to cancer patients. The lack of consensus on intensive care unit triage practices in the oncological population exposes a potential barrier to appropriate resource allocation that needs to be addressed.
The full text of this article is available to subscribers via this link to the journal’s homepage.  The full text of articles from issues older than sixty days is available via this link to an archive of issues of Journal of Critical Care.  A Rotherham NHS Athens password is required.  Eligible staff can register for an Athens password via this link.  Please speak to the library staff for more details.