Association between acute kidney injury and neurological outcome or death at 6 months in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study

This paper by Oh and colleagues was first published online in the Journal of Critical Care during August 2019.
Purpose:  This study aimed to evaluate the association between acute kidney injury (AKI) and 6 months neurological outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).
Materials and methods:  Prospective multi-center observational cohort included adult OHCA patients treated with targeted temperature management (TTM) across 20 hospitals in the South Korea between October 2015 and October 2017. The diagnosis of AKI was made using the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria. The outcome was neurological outcome at 6 months evaluated using the modified Rankin scale (MRS).
Results:  Among 5676 patients with OHCA, 583 patients were enrolled. AKI developed in 348 (60%) patients. Significantly more non-AKI patients had good neurological outcome at 6 months (MRS 0–3) than AKI patients (134/235 [57%] vs. 69/348 [20%], P < .001). AKI was associated with poor neurological outcome at six months in multivariate logistic regression analysis (adjusted odds ratio: 0.206 [95% confidence interval: 0.099–0.426], P < .001]). Cox regression analysis with time-varying covariate of AKI showed that patients with AKI had a higher risk of death than those without AKI (hazard ratio: 2.223; 95% confidence interval: 1.630–3.030, P < .001).
Conclusions:  AKI is associated with poor neurological outcome (MRS 4–6) at 6 months in OHCA patients treated with TTM.

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Cardiac output during targeted temperature management and renal function after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

This article by Grand and colleagues was published online in the Journal of Critical Care during July 2019.
Purpose:  After resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), renal injury and hemodynamic instability are common. We aimed to assess the association between low cardiac output during targeted temperature management (TTM) and acute kidney injury (AKI) after OHCA.
Materials and methods:  Single-center substudy of 171 patients included in the prospective, randomized TTM-trial. Hemodynamic evaluation was performed with serial measurements by pulmonary artery catheter. AKI was the primary endpoint and was defined according to the KDIGO-criteria.
Results:  Of 152 patients with available hemodynamic data, 49 (32%) had AKI and 21 (14%) had AKI with need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) in the first three days. During targeted temperature management, patients with AKI had higher heart rate (11 beats/min, pgroup < 0.0001), higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) (4 mmHg, pgroup = 0.001) and higher lactate (1 mmol/L, pgroup < 0.0001) compared to patients without AKI. However, there was no difference in cardiac index (pgroup = 0.25). In a multivariate logistic regression model, adjusting for potential confounders, MAP (p = .03), heart rate (p = .01) and lactate (p = .006), but not cardiac output, were independently associated with AKI.
Conclusions:  Blood pressure, heart rate and lactate, but not cardiac output, during 24 h of TTM were associated with AKI in comatose OHCA-patients.
The full text of this article is available to subscribers via this link to the journal’s homepage.  The full text of articles from issues older than sixty days is available via this link to an archive of issues of Journal of Critical Care.  A Rotherham NHS Athens password is required.  Eligible staff can register for an Athens password via this link.  Please speak to the library staff for more details.

The incidence, characteristics, outcomes and associations of small short-term point-of-care creatinine increases in critically ill patients

This article by Toh and colleagues was published online in the Journal of Critical Care during May 2019.
Purpose:  We assessed the incidence, characteristics, outcomes, and associations of small, short-term point-of-care creatinine increases in critically ill patients.
Methods:  We prospectively identified the first episode of small (>1 μmol/L/h) short-term (3–4 h) point-of-care creatinine increase between two sequential arterial blood gas measurements. We followed patients for the subsequent development of Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) defined acute kidney injury (AKI) in the intensive care unit (ICU).
Results:  Of 387 patients, 279 (72.1%) developed an episode of small short-term point-of-care creatinine increase and 212 (54.8%) developed AKI. Such episodes occurred at a median of 5 (IQR 2–10) hours after ICU admission, while AKI occurred at a median of 15 (IQR 9–28) hours after admission. Patients with such episodes were more likely to be mechanically ventilated on admission (83.9 vs. 44.4%; p < .001) and had higher hospital mortality (10.9 vs. 3.7%, p = .03). Creatinine increase episodes had a sensitivity of 86% (95% CI 78–95) and specificity of 31% (95% CI 26–36) for subsequent AKI stages 2 and 3 in 24 h.
Conclusions:  Small, short-term point-of-care creatinine increase episodes are common. They are associated with illness severity, occur early, precede AKI by 10 h and are sensitive rather than specific markers of AKI.
The full text of this article is available to subscribers via this link to the journal’s homepage.  The full text of articles from issues older than sixty days is available via this link to an archive of issues of Journal of Critical Care.  A Rotherham NHS Athens password is required.  Eligible staff can register for an Athens password via this link.  Please speak to the library staff for more details.

Acute kidney injury following contrast media administration in the septic patient: A retrospective propensity-matched analysis

This article by Hinson and others was published on line in February 2019 in the Journal of Critical Care.
Purpose:  To determine the risk for acute kidney injury (AKI) attributable to intravenous contrast media (CM) administration in septic patients.
Materials and methods:  This was a single-center retrospective propensity matched cohort analysis performed in the emergency department (ED) of an academic medical center. All visits for patients ≥18 years who met sepsis diagnostic criteria and had serum creatinine (SCr) measured both on arrival to the ED and again 48 to 72 h later were included. Of 4171 visits, 1464 patients underwent contrast-enhanced CT (CECT), 976 underwent unenhanced CT and 1731 underwent no CT at all.
Results:  The primary outcome was incidence of AKI. Logistic regression and between-groups odds ratios with and without propensity-score matching were used to test for an independent association between CM administration and AKI. Incidence of AKI was 7.2%, 9.4% and 9.7% in those who underwent CECT, unenhanced CT and no CT. CM administration was not associated with increased incidence of AKI.
Conclusions:  Sepsis is a medical emergency proven to benefit from early diagnosis and rapid initiation of treatment, which is often aided by CECT. Our findings argue against withholding CM for fear of precipitating AKI in potentially septic patients.
The full text of this article is available to subscribers via this link to the journal’s homepage.  The full text of articles from issues older than sixty days is available via this link to an archive of issues of Journal of Critical Care.  A Rotherham NHS Athens password is required.  Eligible staff can register for an Athens password via this link.  Please speak to the library staff for more details.

Timing of Renal-Replacement Therapy in Patients with Acute Kidney Injury and Sepsis

This article by the IDEAL-ICU Trial Investigators and the CRICS TRIGGERSEP Network was published in the New England journal of medicine in October 2018.
Background:  Acute kidney injury is the most frequent complication in patients with septic shock and is an independent risk factor for death. Although renal-replacement therapy is the standard of care for severe acute kidney injury, the ideal time for initiation remains controversial.
Methods:  In a multicentre, randomized, controlled trial, we assigned patients with early-stage septic shock who had severe acute kidney injury at the failure stage of the risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage kidney disease (RIFLE) classification system but without life-threatening complications related to acute kidney injury to receive renal-replacement therapy either within 12 hours after documentation of failure-stage acute kidney injury (early strategy) or after a delay of 48 hours if renal recovery had not occurred (delayed strategy). The failure stage of the RIFLE classification system is characterized by a serum creatinine level 3 times the baseline level (or ≥4 mg per deciliter with a rapid increase of ≥0.5 mg per deciliter), urine output less than 0.3 ml per kilogram of body weight per hour for 24 hours or longer, or anuria for at least 12 hours. The primary outcome was death at 90 days.
Results:  The trial was stopped early for futility after the second planned interim analysis. A total of 488 patients underwent randomization; there were no significant between-group differences in the characteristics at baseline. Among the 477 patients for whom follow-up data at 90 days were available, 58% of the patients in the early-strategy group (138 of 239 patients) and 54% in the delayed-strategy group (128 of 238 patients) had died (P=0.38). In the delayed-strategy group, 38% (93 patients) did not receive renal-replacement therapy. Criteria for emergency renal-replacement therapy were met in 17% of the patients in the delayed-strategy group (41 patients).
Conclusions:  Among patients with septic shock who had severe acute kidney injury, there was no significant difference in overall mortality at 90 days between patients who were assigned to an early strategy for the initiation of renal-replacement therapy and those who were assigned to a delayed strategy.
The printed copy of the New England Journal of Medicine is available in the Health Care Library on D Level of Rotherham Hospital.

Critical Care Reviews Newsletter 348 12th August 2018

The 348th Critical Care Reviews Newsletter, brings you the best critical care research and open access articles from across the medical literature during the last week.  “The highlights of this week’s edition are randomised controlled trials on terlipressin versus noradrenaline for AKI in acute-on-chronic liver failure, restricted fluid bolus volume in early paediatric septic shock & early CPAP in acute respiratory failure in children with impacritcal care reviewsired immunity; systematic reviews and meta analyses on complications and failures of central vascular access devices & laryngeal injury and upper airway symptoms after intubation during critical care; and guidelines and position statements on steroid therapy for sepsis, disorders of consciousness & spinal motion restriction in trauma.”

The full text of the newsletter can be accessed via this link.

Forced fluid removal in intensive care patients with acute kidney injury: The randomised FFAKI feasibility trial

This article by Berthelsen et al was published in the April 2018 issue of Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica.
Background:  Accumulation of fluids is frequent in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with acute kidney injury and may be associated with increased mortality and decreased renal recovery. We present the results of a pilot trial assessing the feasibility of forced fluid removal in ICU patients with acute kidney injury and fluid accumulation of more than 10% ideal bodyweight.
Methods:  The FFAKI-trial was a pilot trial of forced fluid removal vs standard care in adult ICU patients with moderate to high risk acute kidney injury and 10% fluid accumulation. Fluid removal was done with furosemide and/or continuous renal replacement therapy aiming at net negative fluid balance > 1 mL/kg ideal body weight/hour until cumulative fluid balance calculated from ICU admission reached less than 1000 mL.
Results:  After 20 months, we stopped the trial prematurely due to a low inclusion rate with 23 (2%) included patients out of the 1144 screened. Despite the reduced sample size, we observed a marked reduction in cumulative fluid balance 5 days after randomisation (mean difference -5814 mL, 95% CI -2063 to -9565, P = .003) with forced fluid removal compared to standard care. While the trial was underpowered for clinical endpoints, no point estimates suggested harm from forced fluid removal.
Conclusions:  Forced fluid removal aiming at 1 mL/kg ideal body weight/hour may be an effective treatment of fluid accumulation in ICU patients with acute kidney injury. A definitive trial using our inclusion criteria seems less feasible based on our inclusion rate of only 2%.
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