Impact of prior ICU experience on ICU patient family members’ psychological distress: A descriptive study

This article by Lewis and Taylor was published in “Intensive and Critical Care Nursing” October 2017.

Objective:  To determine if current levels of anxiety, depression and acute stress disorder symptoms differ significantly among family members of intensive-care-unit patients depending upon previous intensive-care experience.

Research Design:  This study used a prospective, descriptive study design.

Setting:  Family members (N=127) from patients admitted within a 72-hour timeframe to the medical, surgical, cardiac and neurological intensive care units were recruited from waiting rooms at a medium-sized community hospital in the Southeastern United States.

Main outcome measures:  Participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Impact of Events Scale-Revised, the Acute Stress Disorder Scale and a demographic questionnaire.

Results:  A multivariate analysis revealed that family members of intensive-care-unit patients with a prior intensive-care experience within the past two years (n=56) were significantly more likely to report anxiety, depression and acute stress symptoms, Λ=0.92, F [4122]=2.70, p=0.034, partial η2=0.08, observed power=0.74.

Conclusion:  Results of this study show that family members’ psychological distress is higher with previous familial or personal intensive-care experience. Nurses need to assess for psychological distress in ICU family members and identify those who could benefit from additional support services provided in collaboration with multidisciplinary support professionals.

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Satisfaction with quality of ICU care for patients and families

Families’ perspectives are of great importance in evaluating quality of care in the intensive care unit (ICU). This Danish-Dutch study tested a European adaptation of the “Family Satisfaction in the ICU” (euroFS-ICU) | Critical Care

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Image source: Ricardo Díaz – Flickr // CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

The aim of the study was to examine assessments of satisfaction with care in a large cohort of Danish and Dutch family members and to examine the measurement characteristics of the euroFS-ICU.

Most family members were moderately or very satisfied with patient care, family care, information and decision-making, but areas with room for improvement were also identified. Psychometric assessments suggest that composite scores constructed from these items as representations of either overall satisfaction or satisfaction with specific sub-domains do not meet rigorous measurement standards. The euroFS-ICU and other similar instruments may benefit from adding reflective indicators.

Full reference: Jensen, H.I. et al. (2017) Satisfaction with quality of ICU care for patients and families: the euroQ2 project. Critical Care. 21:239

Coping with the stress in the cardiac intensive care unit: Can mindfulness be the answer?

Mothers of infants with complex congenital heart disease are exposed to increased stress which has been associated with numerous adverse health outcomes. The coping mechanisms these mothers use critically effect the familial illness adaptation and most likely infant outcomes | Journal of Pediatric Nursing

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Currently no data-based strategies have been developed for mothers to facilitate their coping, and proactively promote their adaptation in the critical care settings. A potential strategy is mindfulness which is currently used in other clinical settings with stress-reduction effects.

Highlights:

  • Mothers use emotion-regulatory coping mechanisms during the CICU stay.
  • Both active and passive strategies are used by mothers to cope with the stress.
  • Mindfulness is an acceptable and feasible approach to reduce mothers’ stress.
  • Early, tailored interventions can potentially provide long-term stress relief.

Full reference: Golfenshtein, N. et al. (2017) Coping with the stress in the cardiac intensive care unit: Can mindfulness be the answer? Journal of Pediatric Nursing. Published online: August 11, 2017

Outcomes of Patient- and Family-Centered Care Interventions in the ICU

The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether patient- and family-centered care interventions in the ICU improve outcomes | Critical Care Medicine

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Data Synthesis: There were 46 studies (35 observational pre/post, 11 randomized) included in the analysis. Seventy-eight percent of studies (n = 36) reported one or more positive outcome measures, whereas 22% of studies (n = 10) reported no significant changes in outcome measures. Random-effects meta-analysis of the highest quality randomized studies showed no significant difference in mortality (n = 5 studies; odds ratio = 1.07; 95% CI, 0.95-1.21; p = 0.27; I2 = 0%), but there was a mean decrease in ICU length of stay by 1.21 days (n = 3 studies; 95% CI, -2.25 to -0.16; p = 0.02; I2 = 26%). Improvements in ICU costs, family satisfaction, patient experience, medical goal achievement, and patient and family mental health outcomes were also observed with intervention; however, reported outcomes were heterogeneous precluding formal meta-analysis.

Conclusions: Patient- and family-centered care-focused interventions resulted in decreased ICU length of stay but not mortality. A wide range of interventions were also associated with improvements in many patient- and family-important outcomes. Additional high-quality interventional studies are needed to further evaluate the effectiveness of patient- and family-centered care in the intensive care setting.

Full reference: Goldfarb, M,J. et al. (2017) Outcomes of Patient- and Family-Centered Care Interventions in the ICU: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Critical Care Medicine: Published online: July 26 2017

 

Extended ICU Visitation Model for Delirium Prevention

This study aims to evaluate the effect of an extended visitation model compared with a restricted visitation model on the occurrence of delirium among ICU patients | Critical Care Medicine

Interventions: Change of visitation policy from a restricted visitation model (4.5 hr/d) to an extended visitation model (12 hr/d).

Measurements and Main Results: Two hundred eighty-six patients were enrolled (141 restricted visitation model, 145 extended visitation model). The primary outcome was the cumulative incidence of delirium, assessed bid using the confusion assessment method for the ICU. Predefined secondary outcomes included duration of delirium/coma; any ICU-acquired infection; ICU-acquired bloodstream infection, pneumonia, and urinary tract infection; all-cause ICU mortality; and length of ICU stay. The median duration of visits increased from 133 minutes (interquartile range, 97.7-162.0) in restricted visitation model to 245 minutes (interquartile range, 175.0-272.0) in extended visitation model (p < 0.001). Fourteen patients (9.6%) developed delirium in extended visitation model compared with 29 (20.5%) in restricted visitation model (adjusted relative risk, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.26-0.95). In comparison with restricted visitation model patients, extended visitation model patients had shorter length of delirium/coma (1.5 d [interquartile range, 1.0-3.0] vs 3.0 d [interquartile range, 2.5-5.0]; p = 0.03) and ICU stay (3.0 d [interquartile range, 2.0-4.0] vs 4.0 d [interquartile range, 2.0-6.0]; p = 0.04). The rate of ICU-acquired infections and all-cause ICU mortality did not differ significantly between the two study groups.

Conclusions: In this medical-surgical ICU, an extended visitation model was associated with reduced occurrence of delirium and shorter length of delirium/coma and ICU stay.

Full reference: Rosa, R.G. et al. (2017) Effectiveness and Safety of an Extended ICU Visitation Model for Delirium Prevention: A Before and After Study. Critical Care Medicine: Published online: 30th June 2017

Psychological and information need of the family members of critically ill patients

Chiang, V.C.L. et al. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing | Published online: 21 April 2017

Background: Intensive care nurses may have an important role in empowering families by providing psychological support and fulfilling the family’s pivotal need for information.

 

Conclusion: The results suggest that use of ‘education of family by tab’ is promising for intensive care nurses to provide psychological support for family members. More studies are needed to investigate this aspect of family care for better psychological support and information need satisfaction that contributes to the evidence-based practice of intensive care nursing.

Read the full abstract here

Implementing EBP: in-hospital family-witnessed cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Sak-Dankosky, N. Nursing in Critical Care. Published online: 9 April 2017

Background: In-hospital, family-witnessed cardiopulmonary resuscitation of adults has been found to help patients’ family members deal with the short- and long-term emotional consequences of resuscitation. Because of its benefits, many national and international nursing and medical organizations officially recommend this practice. Research, however, shows that family-witnessed resuscitation is not widely implemented in clinical practice, and health care professionals generally do not favour this recommendation.

Conclusion: Despite existing evidence revealing the positive influence of family-witnessed resuscitation on patients, relatives and cardiopulmonary resuscitation process, Finnish and Polish health care providers cited a number of personal and organizational barriers against this practice. The results of this study begin to examine reasons why family-witnessed resuscitation has not been widely implemented in practice. In order to successfully apply current evidence-based resuscitation guidelines, provider concerns need to be addressed through educational and organizational changes.

Read the full abstract here