Fluid therapy and outcome: a prospective observational study in 65 German intensive care units between 2010 and 2011

This article written by Ertmer et al was published in Annals of Intensive Care in the February 2018 edition.
Background:  Outcome data on fluid therapy in critically ill patients from randomised controlled trials may be different from data obtained by observational studies under “real-life” conditions. We conducted this prospective, observational study to investigate current practice of fluid therapy (crystalloids and colloids) and associated outcomes in 65 German intensive care units (ICUs). In total, 4545 adult patients who underwent intravenous fluid therapy were included. The main outcome measures were 90-day mortality, ICU mortality and acute kidney injury (AKI). Data were analysed using logistic and Cox regression models, as appropriate.
Results:  In the predominantly post-operative overall cohort, unadjusted 90-day mortality was 20.1%. Patients who also received colloids (54.6%) had a higher median Simplified Acute Physiology Score II [25 (interquartile range 11; 41) vs. 17 (7; 31)] and incidence of severe sepsis (10.2 vs. 7.4%) on admission compared to patients who received exclusively crystalloids (45.4%). 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES 130/0.4) was the most common colloid (57.0%). Crude rates of 90-day mortality were higher for patients who received colloids (OR 1.845 [1.560; 2.181]). After adjustment for baseline variables, the HR was 1.666 [1.405; 1.976] and further decreased to indicate no associated risk (HR 1.003 [0.980; 1.027]) when it was adjusted for vasopressor use, severity of disease and transfusions. Similarly, the crude risk of AKI was higher in the colloid group (crude OR 3.056 [2.528; 3.694]), after adjustment for baseline variables OR 1.941 [1.573; 2.397], and after full adjustment OR 0.696 [0.629; 0.770]), the risk of AKI turned out to be reduced. The same was true for the subgroup of patients treated with 6% HES 130/0.4 (crude OR 1.931 [1.541; 2.419], adjusted for baseline variables OR 2.260 [1.730; 2.953] and fully adjusted OR 0.800 [0.704; 0.910]) as compared to crystalloids only.
Conclusions:  The present analysis of mostly post-operative patients in routine clinical care did not reveal an independent negative effect of colloids (mostly 6% HES 130/0.4) on renal function or survival after multivariable adjustment. Signals towards a reduced risk in subgroup analyses deserve further study.
The full text of this article is available via the PDF that can be accessed via this link

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Sixth International Fluid Academy Days Antwerp 23rd-25th November 2017

“The aim of this sixth edition is again to review recent advances in fluid management, and hemodynamic and organ function monitoring in the critical care setting in a comprehensive manner for intensivists, anaesthesiologists and emergency physicians as well as interested internists and surgeons. However the meeting will deal with any broad topic related to critical care. As always it is also a great way to promote professional interaction between faculty members, participants and delegates of the industry.

iFAD is an innovative Critical Care Educational meeting. This conference provides the highest quality of Critical Care education and is guaranteed to innovate and inspire. The iFAD Faculty is the most provocative, engaging, motivating and inspiring group of international educational speakers and as organizing committee we want to ensure we have the sponsors to match. Together, we make iFAD stand apart from other Critical Care conferences.”

Full details can be found on the conference website

Early Antibiotics & Fluids Key in Sepsis Management

Sepsis and septic shock are medical emergencies that require immediate action | Anesthesiology News

Early resuscitation should begin with early antibiotics and fluids, as well as the identification of the source of infection, according to new guidelines that were released at the Society of Critical Care Medicine’s (SCCM) 2017 Critical Care Congress.

In addition, the new guidelines say a health care provider who is trained and skilled in the management of sepsis should reassess the patient frequently at the bedside. “It is not the initial assessment, but the frequent reassessment that will make a difference,” said Andrew Rhodes, MD, FRCP, FRCA, FFICM, the co-chair of the guidelines committee.

Read the full news story here

Early management of paediatric burn injuries

Gill, P. & Falder, S. Paediatrics and Child Health | Published online: 21 April 2017

B0006880 Skin cells from a scald
Image source: Anne Weston, LRI, CRUK – Wellcome Images // CC BY-NC-ND 4.0

Image shows skin cells from a scald

Burns are a common form of trauma in children, resulting most frequently from scalds but also contact, flame, electrical and chemical sources. Burn patients have a wide spectrum of injury severity and diverse outcome, ranging from superficial burns with no lasting physical signs to deep, large body surface area burns which are profoundly life-changing, affecting all physiological systems. Size, site and depth are important factors affecting treatment and outcome.

There are important anatomical, physiological and psychosocial differences between adults and children. Their body proportions are different, they have thinner skin, smaller airways, reduced blood volume and high levels of distress. They are vulnerable to non-accidental injury.

Children require formal fluid resuscitation and maintenance fluids for burns more than 10% total body surface area. Complications include infection, toxic shock syndrome, adverse scarring and psychological sequelae. This paper discusses how correct assessment and management in the acute stage can reduce later morbidity and mortality.

Read the full abstract here

Fluid resuscitation for acute kidney injury: an empty promise.

Watkins, S.C.& Shaw, A.D. Current Opinion in Critical Care. Published online: 29 September 2016

Purpose of review: The past decade has seen more advances in our understanding of fluid therapy than the preceding decades combined. What was once thought to be a relatively benign panacea is increasingly being recognized as a potent pharmacological and physiological intervention that may pose as much harm as benefit.

Recent findings: Recent studies have clearly indicated that the amount, type, and timing of fluid administration have profound effects on patient morbidity and outcomes. The practice of aggressive volume resuscitation for ‘renal protection’ and ‘hemodynamic support’ may in fact be contributing to end organ dysfunction. The practice of early goal-directed therapy for patients suffering from critical illness or undergoing surgery appears to offer no benefit over conventional therapy and may in fact be harmful. A new conceptual model for fluid resuscitation of critically ill patients has recently been developed and is explored here.

Summary: The practice of giving more fluid early and often is being replaced with new conceptual models of fluid resuscitation that suggest fluid therapy be ‘personalized’ to individual patient pathophysiology.

Read the abstract here